alkanes list and structure


The molecular formula of C8H18 may apply to several alkanes, each one of which has unique chemical, physical and toxicological properties. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Usually, alkanes are not considered functional groups; rather, an alkane is a compound that lacks functional groups. The list of some Alkanes and the molecular formula is given below.Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8), Butane (C4H10), Pentane (C5H12), Hexane (C6H14), Heptane (C7H16), Octane (C8H18), Nonane (C9H20), Decane (C10H22). Your email address will not be published.

The general molecular formula of alkane for straight and branched-chain alkanes is CnH2n+2 and that of cyclic alkanes is CnH2n.

Structural formulas for alkanes can be written in yet another condensed form.

Methane gas, whose molecular formula is CH4, is the simplest alkane.

Your email address will not be published. Alkanes are single-bond hydrocarbon atoms. As with other organic compounds, the carbon atoms in alkanes may form straight chains, branched chains, or rings. They are distinguished by the types of bonding between carbon atoms and the properties that result from that bonding. Learn more about hydrocarbons and their types by downloading BYJU’S – The Learning App. Hydrocarbons with only carbon-to-carbon single bonds (C–C) and existing as a continuous chain of carbon atoms also bonded to hydrogen atoms are called alkanes (or saturated hydrocarbons). We previously introduced the three simplest alkanes—methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), and propane (C 3 H 8) …

The alkanes comprise a series of compounds that are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. As this compound have just single covalent bonds only, therefore, its structural formula is, In a long chain alkane molecule, additional carbon atoms are attached to each other with the help of a single covalent bond. Here is a methane‐chlorine reaction that can be generalized as. The first five alkanes formulas with an unbranched chain are tabulated below. An eight-carbon alkane has a molecular formula – C 8H 18 and structural formula-. This long-chain structure is known as octane.

Ethyne (HC-CH), frequently known as acetylene, is the easiest alkyne as shown on the right. The sequence starts with C3H8, and a CH2 unit is added in each step moving up the series.

Compounds that have the same molecular, but different structural formulas are called structural isomers.

We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Nonane (C9H20) 10. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0.

For example in the diagram, the four hydrocarbon molecules contain 8 carbon atoms each. In one of the molecules, all the carbon atoms are in a straight chain and in two they are in branched chains, whereas in a fourth, 6 of the carbon atoms are in a ring. Three types of alkanes are available: linear straight alkanes branched alkanes and cyclic alkanes. These different compounds are designated by structural formulas showing the order in which the atoms in a molecule are arranged.

To identify and name simple (straight-chain) alkanes given formulas and write formulas for straight-chain alkanes given their names. Structural formulas for alkanes can be written in condensed form. It is generally observed that even-numbered alkanes have a higher trend in melting point in comparison to odd-numbered alkanes as the even-numbered alkanes pack well in the solid phase, forming a well-organized structure which is difficult to break. Have questions or comments? • If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Also, comprises a homologous series having a molecular formula of C nH2n+2. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store.

Also, Read in Detail: Physical & Chemical Properties of Alkanes. In addition, many important parts of organic molecules contain one or more alkane groups, minus a hydrogen atom, bonded as substituents onto the basic organic molecule.

Alkanes are organic compounds that consist of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. Formulas of organic compounds present information at several levels of sophistication. As a consequence of these factors, the names of many organic compounds are based on alkanes. Heptane (C7H16) 8. Your IP: 164.52.197.227

Hence, alkanes are hydrophobic in nature that is, alkanes are insoluble in water. This Alkyl group is often denoted by the letter R the same as halogens represent by the letter X. For example, the structural formula of pentane contains three CH2 methylene groups in the middle of the chain.

The word saturated has the same meaning for hydrocarbons as it does for the dietary fats and oils: the molecule has no carbon-to-carbon double bonds (C=C). An ordinary solid line indicates a bond in the plane of the page. They can be categorized into three groups which are: chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, and branched alkanes.

These three kinds of alkanes are straight chain alkanes, branched chain alkanes and cycloalkanes.

The formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2. Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbon chains. The most basic family of compounds has been called alkanes. The melting point of alkanes follow the same trend as their boiling point that is, it increases with increase in molecular weight. Consider the series in Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\). Propane (C3H8) 4. Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) are the first four alkanes.

The following is a list of straight-chain and branched alkanes and their common names, …
Alkanes are organic compounds composed of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. We begin our study of organic chemistry with the hydrocarbons, the simplest organic compounds, which are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms only. Simple alkanes exist as a homologous series, in which adjacent members differ by a CH. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Here is a list of the first 10 alkanes.

itsorigins in the study of natural compounds extracted from living organisms However, they are soluble in organic solvents as the energy required to overcome the existing Van Der Waals forces and generate new. Note that the numbering of the parent chain is always done in such a way as to give the double bond the lowest number, even if that causes a substituent to have a higher number. Butane (C4H10) 5. This group of compounds consists of carbon and hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. The new compound is composed of a CH3 group that is bonded to a chlorine atom.

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